Programming ultimately is about building a better mousetrap, and sometimes that includes the programming languages themselves. Today, there are at least a dozen up-and-coming languages vying to become the next C++ or Java.
The role of a major vendor isn’t limited to creating the language itself. In some cases, the vendor can be influential when it creates an ecosystem and then encourages use of a certain language.
“For example, Microsoft pushed C# hard when it launched .NET a decade ago, which resulted in great traction for that language,” says Hilwa. “The Microsoft developer system is somewhat unique in that, up to this point, Microsoft has huge credibility in moving the ecosystem with its actions given its dominance in personal computing. But even then, many languages are made available to please specific factions of developers, and not necessarily because they are expected to dominate. I would put F# in this category.”
Emerging languages also have to overcome the fact that incumbency often has its privileges -- or at least an installed base of products and people that are unwilling or unable to change.
“The issue with launching new languages to replace old and potentially inferior ones is the body of code written and the mass of developers who have vested skills,” says Hilwa. “It’s very hard to create a shift in the industry due to these effects. Such a change requires a high level of industry consensus and a sustained multivendor push that involves the key influential vendors.
“For example, if IBM was to put its power behind Dart, then that might help it. It may be hard for Google to muster up such long-term commitment given its culture of focus on the hot and new.”
Meet Dart, F# and Fantom
Here’s an overview of three emerging languages that, at this point, seem to have enough market momentum that enterprises should keep an eye on them:
F# is one of the elder newcomers in the sense that Microsoft began shipping it with Visual Studio 2010. Pronounced “F sharp,” it’s a functional-style language that’s designed to be easy to integrate with imperative languages such as C++ and Java. It also supports parallel programming, which is increasingly important as multicore processors become more common.